Unbiased Stereology: Three-dimensional Measurement in Microscopy (Advanced Methods) by Vyvyan Howard (Paperback - Jan 7, 2005).

Quantitative Methods in Neuroscience: A Neuroanatomical Approach by Stephen M. Evans, Ann Marie Janson, and Jens Randel Nyengaard (Hardcover - Sep 2, 2004)

Stereology for Statisticians (Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability) by Adrian Baddeley and Eva B. Vedel Jensen (Hardcover - Jul 5, 2004)

Stereology reviews

Design-based stereology: introduction to basic concepts and practical approaches for estimation of cell number. Boyce RW, Dorph-Petersen KA, Lyck L, Gundersen HJ. Toxicol Pathol 2010; 38: 1011-1025.

The new stereological tools: disector, fractionator, nucleator and point sampled intercepts and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. Gundersen HJ, Bagger P, Bendtsen TF et al. Apmis 1988a; 96: 857-881.

Some new, simple and efficient stereological methods and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. Gundersen HJ, Bendtsen TF, Korbo L et al. Apmis 1988b; 96: 379-394.


Stereology of arbitrary particles. A review of unbiased number and size estimators and the presentation of some new ones, in memory of William R. Thompson. Gundersen HJ. J Microsc 1986; 143(1): 3-45.

The smooth fractionator. Gundersen HJ. J Microsc 2002; 207: 191-210.

The proportionator: unbiased stereological estimation using biased automatic image analysis and non-uniform probability proportional to size sampling. Gardi JE, Nyengaard JR, Gundersen HJ. Comput Biol Med 2008; 38: 313-328.

Optimizing sampling efficiency of stereological studies in biology: or 'do more less well!'. Gundersen HJ, Osterby R. J Microsc 1981; 121: 65-73.

Estimation of surface area from vertical sections. Baddeley AJ, Gundersen HJ, Cruz-Orive LM. J Microsc 1986; 142(3): 259-276.


The unbaised estimation of number and sizes of arbitrary particles using the disector. Sterio DC. Journal of Microscopy 1983; 134: 127-136.

If you assume, you can make an ass out of u and me': a decade of the disector for stereological counting of particles in 3D space. Mayhew TM, Gundersen HJ. J Anat 1996a; 188(1): 1-15.

The nucleator. Gundersen HJ. J Microsc 1988; 151(1): 3-21.

The semi-automatic nucleator. Hansen LV, Nyengaard JR, Andersen JB, Jensen EBV. J Microsc 2011; 242(2): 206-215.

Determination of membrane thickness distribution from orthogonal intercepts. Jensen EB, Gundersen HJ, Osterby R. J Microsc 1979; 115: 19-33.

The Rotator. Jensen EBV, Gundersen HJG. Journal of Microscopy-Oxford 1993; 170: 35-44.

The Optical Rotator. Tandrup T, Gundersen HJ, Jensen EB. J Microsc 1997; 186(2): 108-120.

The Spatial Rotator. Rasmusson A, Hahn U, Larsen JO, Gundersen HJG, Vedel Jensen E, Nyengaard JR. J Microsc 2013; 250(2): 88-100.

The saucor, a new stereological tool for analysing the spatial distributions of cells, exemplified by human neocortical neurons and glial cells. Stark AK, Gundersen HJG, Gardi JE, Pakkenberg B, Hahn U. J Microsc 2011; 242: 132-47.


Tissue shrinkage and unbiased stereological estimation of particle number and size. Dorph-Petersen KA, Nyengaard JR, Gundersen HJ. J Microsc 2001; 204: 232-246.


The efficiency of systematic sampling in stereology and its prediction. Gundersen HJ, Jensen EB. J Microsc 1987; 147(3): 229-263.

The efficiency of systematic sampling in stereology--reconsidered. Gundersen HJ, Jensen EB, Kieu K, Nielsen J. J Microsc 1999; 193: 199-211.

Variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators. Ziegel J, Jensen EBV, Dorph-Petersen KA. Biometrika 2011; 98: 187-198.